Medical term for Nosebleed is known as Epistaxis. Epistaxis occurs due to the lining of your nose contains many tiny blood vessels that lie close to the surface and are easily damage, therefore caused bleeding from the nose. It can take a few seconds to over 10 minutes for a nosebleed to cease completely. The volume of blood flow can range from light to heavy in different cases of epistaxis.


Possible causes of nosebleed

  • Cold and dry air
  • Chemical irritants and polluted air
  • Foreign object stuck in the nose
  • Allergic reaction
  • Injury to the nose
  • Repeated sneezing/ blowing your nose with force
  • Picking the nose
  • upper respiratory tract infection
  • Overuse of drugs eg: antiplatelet agents


First aid treatment

1. Stay upright and lean forward

  • Positioned yourself to stay upright and lean forward. Keep the head above the heart. Do not tilt your head back or lie flat.
  • Do not swallow the blood, spit it out.


2. Pinch soft part of the nose

  • Firmly pinch the soft cartilage portion of the nose located just below the bony bridge with your thumb and index finger.
  • Hold this position continuously for at least 5-10 minutes.
  • Breathe through your mouth, and try to stay calm.
  • After 5 minutes slowly release the pressure from your nose to check for the bleeding has been stop.
  • Stay calm and rest; do not pick or blow your nose or lift heavy things as this could cause the bleeding to recur.


3. Call 999 and seek for medical treatment immediately if the bleeding is severe or persists after 10 minutes.